Growth failure is very common in children with congenital heart defects. Various reasons cited include poor oxygen saturation in the growing tissues, heart failure and frequent respiratory infections with inadequate calorie intake and increased energy expenditure as compared to normal children. The degree of growth failure usually associated with onset of symptoms.
Commonly those with cyanotic heart disease are usually short statured due to hypoxia of the epiphyseal plate, while those with acyanotic heart diseases have poor weight gain due to recurrent respiratory tract infection and congestive cardiac failure which results in difficulty in feeding with poor calorie intake compounded by increased oxygen consumption due to excessive work of the heart and lungs.
Growth pattern and growth curves in Asian children with congenital heart disease in relation to height, weight and head circumference is reported in Indian children. Hemodynamic as well as different types of congenital heart malformations are also described. This book describes types of growth failure in children with congenital heart disease and recommendations on how best to increase nutrition and growth in children with cardiac malformations